Valid Names Results

Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, 1881 (Coccidae: Ceroplastes)

Nomenclatural History

Common Names

Ecological Associates


Families: 69 | Genera: 161


Families: 11 | Genera: 20

Geographic Distribution

Countries: 102


  • PapadoKaMa2020: pp.3 ( Adult (F) ) [Ceroplastes in Greece]
  • WuWa2019: pp.521 ( Adult (F) ) [Ceroplastes in China]
  • ChoiSoSe2018: pp.6-7 ( Adult (F) ) [Coccidae in Laos]
  • WolffKoPe2016: pp.275-276 ( Adult (F) ) [Species recorded on Myrciaria dubia in Brazil]
  • MohammMo2013: pp.146-148 ( Adult (F) ) [Key to species and subspecies of family coccidae in Egypt]
  • FetykoKo2012: pp.293 ( Adult (F) ) [Key to species of Ceroplastes in the Palaearctic Region based on slide-mounted adult females]
  • PerontSoGr2008: pp.142-144 ( Adult (F) ) [Ceroplastes species of São Paulo, Brazil]
  • Hodges2002b: pp.208 ( Adult (F) ) [Ceroplastes species of Florida]
  • MoriPeTo2001: pp.42 ( Adult (F) ) [Italy]
  • Koszta1996: pp.325 ( Adult (F) ) [Northeastern North America]
  • MarinLCi1995: pp.52 ( Adult (F) ) [Ceroplastes in Peru]
  • PellizCa1994: pp.177 ( Adult (F) ) [Ceroplastes species of Mediterranean]
  • Tang1991: pp.304 ( Adult (F) ) [China]
  • WilliaWa1990: pp.65 ( Adult (F) ) [Tropical South Pacific]
  • HamonWi1984: pp.18 ( Adult (F) ) [USA, Florida]
  • TaoWoCh1983: pp.93 ( Adult (F) ) [Taiwan]
  • Kawai1980: pp.166 ( Adult (F) ) [Japan]
  • GimpelMiDa1974: pp.19 ( Adult (F) ) [USA]
  • GimpelMiDa1974: pp.19 ( Adult (F) ) [USA]
  • GimpelMiDa1974: pp.19 ( Adult (F) ) [USA]
  • WilliaKo1972: pp.36 ( Adult (F) ) [USA, Virginia]
  • EzzatHu1969: pp.371 ( Adult (F) ) [Egypt]
  • Beards1966: pp.480 ( Adult (F) ) [Beardsley]
  • Borchs1957: pp.451 ( Adult (F) ) [Palaearctic region]
  • Green1909a: pp.277 ( Adult (F) ) [Ceylon]
  • Cocker1895: pp.8 ( Adult (F) ) [West Indies]


  • General Remarks: Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1969b), Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Ben-Dov (1970b), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gimpel et al. (1974), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991), Hodgson (1994a), Kosztarab (1996) and by Peronti et al. (2008).
  • Economic Importance: A major citrus pest in Israel (Bodenheimer, 1951b; Ben-Dov, 1976d). A pest of many ornamentals in U.S.A. (Gimpel et al., 1974). Peleg & Gothilf (1981) and Eisa et al. (1990) studied the adverse effects of several IGR's on this pest. Peleg (1987) reported on resistance to commercial formulation of carabaryl in Israel. Yardeni and Shapira (1995) proposed and applied a control method of the scale by thinning its population using a nutritional spray of 4% potassium nitrate with 2% spray oil.
  • Biology: Balachowsky (1933d) studied and described the biology in southern France. Bodenheimer (1951b) discussed the biology and economic importance. Develops two annual generations on Citrus, in Israel (Ben-Dov, 1976d; Podoler et al., 1981), and in Greece (Argyriou & Kourmadas, 1980). Two generations per year develop in Queensland, Australia (Smith et al, 1997). Methods for laboratory rearing given by Ben-Dov (1970a). Population dynamics on Citrus in Israel studied by Podoler et al. (1981) and by Schneider et al. (1987a, 1987b). Yardeni (1987) and Yardeni & Rosen (1990) studied the wind dispersal of crawlers.
  • Systematics: GenBank Accessions JQ795609-JQ795722. 28S DNA sequences: GenBank Accessions JQ795495-JQ795608. Subfamily: Ceroplasinae (Choi & Lee, 2019) Green (1937) suggested that Ceroplastes vinsonii Signoret, 1872 was very likely identical with C. floridensis, but since no type material was available, he could not verify the synonymy. Ben-Dov (1993) concluded that for the sake of stability, it was advisable to retain C. vinsonii, which antedated C. floridensis, as a valid, but unrecognizable species. Ben-Dov et al. (2000) concluded that C. vinsonii should be regarded a Nomen Oblitum and synonymized it with C. floridensis. C. floridensis is unique in having the ventral tubular ducts in a very distinct, rather narrow, submarginal band extending from near each antenna to near each anal lobe, each duct with a short, very swollen inner ductule. There was some variation in the material studied and some specimens had: (i) more than 2 pairs of interantennal setae; (ii) a reticulate pattern on the sclerotized area of the anal plate, and (iii) loculate microducts densest in a submarginal band. C. floridensis is quite close to C. japonicus Green which also has a submarginal band of similar tubular ducts extending part way around the submargin, bullet-shaped stigmatic setae, many marginal setae, and multilocular disc-pores associated with each coxa, but the latter differs in having the stigmatic setae continuous between the clefts on each side, not separated by a length of margin with just marginal setae. (Hodgson & Peronti, 2012) Deng, et al. (2012) determined DNA COI barcoding sequences for six Chinese Ceroplastes species. Ceroplastes floridensis generated a distinct COI sequence.
  • Structure: Colour photograph of adult female by Kawai (1980, Fig. 6.57), Hodgson (1994a), Carvalho & Aguiar (1997), Wong et al. (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008). Body coverd with thick white wax without a distinct dorsal horn at maturity. (Choi, et al., 2018)