Panis, A. 1982 Lecanines (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) dans le cadre de la lutte integree en agrumiculture mediterraneenne. [Scale insects (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) within the framework of integrated control in Mediterranean citrus culture.]. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Végétale 79(1980): 12-22.
Notes: [Scale insects (Homoptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) within the framework of integrated control in Mediterranean citrus culture.] The main pests of citrus in the Mediterranean region are Saissetia oleae (Ol.), Coccus hesperidum L., Ceroplastes sinensis Del G. and C. floridensis Comst. (Cerostegia floridensis); 10 further species are listed that are confined to localised regions. The nature of the damage caused is discussed; it is concluded that the greatest injury to the trees results not directly from feeding but from the development of sooty mould on the honeydew deposited, and that sooty mould control by means of a fungicide would be more useful than the application of insecticides against the scales (which could also kill their natural enemies). Insect control measures should be directed as far as possible against ants (Tapinoma simrothi Krausse and Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr)) that encourage the production of honeydew, rather than against the scales. Natural enemies recently introduced into Mediterranean countries for biological control are reviewed. On citrus varieties that are especially susceptible to scale damage, sprays of methidathion (reduced in number but accurately timed to coincide with the most susceptible forms of the scales) are recommended. The presence is noted of a new scale pest in France, Unaspis yanonensis (Kuw.), which was accidentally introduced from Japan and for which no natural enemies are known; in the Riviera east of Nice, infestation is so heavy that spraying in July and August is imperative, which precludes any extensive release of natural enemies against other scale insects.