Choi, J., & Lee, S. 2019 Molecular phylogeny of the family Coccidae (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha), with a discussion of their waxy ovisacs. Systematic Entomology 45(2): 396–414
Notes: Here, we present the first molecular phylogeny of the family Coccidae based on DNA fragments of a mitochondrial gene (COI), nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S), and elongation factor-1𝛼 (EF-1𝛼). We found that some genera (Coccus Linnaeus and Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti), tribes (Coccini, Paralecaniini, Pulvinariini and Saissetiini) and subfamilies (Coccinae and Filippiinae) within the family are nonmonophyletic. Formation of a waxy ovisac and the distribution and structures of ventral tubular ducts have been used to define the tribe Pulvinariini morphologically; however, these were found to be homoplastic traits based on ancestral state reconstruction.