Zettler, J.A., Zettler, L.W., & Richardson, L.W. 2012 Pestiferous Scale Insects on Native Epiphytic Orchids in South Florida: A New Threat Posed by Introduced Species. Southeastern Naturalist 11(1):127-134

Notes: Scale insects belong to the superfamily Coccoidea, which includes serious plant pests such as soft scales, armored scales, and mealybugs. In 2009, in a natural habitat surrounded by urban development in Naples, FL, pestiferous scale insects (Coccidae) and mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) were discovered on inflorescences of Dendrophylax lindenii (Ghost Orchid). The next year, a follow-up survey was initiated to also include plants in two orchid-rich habitats within the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. There, exotic scales were found on six different epiphytic orchid taxa. Of the scales encountered, Coccus hesperidum (Brown Soft Scale) and Diaspis boisduvalii (Boisduval Scale) are both well-known and serious pests of cultivated plants. Of particular concern is the possibility that these invasive insects have thoroughly infiltrated isolated, natural habitats of rare native orchids.