Stumpf, C.F., & Lambdin, P.L. 2006 . Pit scales (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of North and South America. Tennessee Agricltural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture Knoxville, Tennessee xix + 231 pp.

Notes: The pit scale insects or Asterolecaniidae are a diverse group found in all major biogeographical regions of the world on a variety of host plants. We studied specimens representing both known and unknown species obtained from institutions in North and South America. Species were described and illustrated based on morphological characters of the adult females. The objectives of this work were to (a) provide a means for identification of pit scale insects in North and South America; (b) consolidate known information on the host plants, natural enemies and distribution for the species, and (c) compile literature associated with these species for further investigations. This book provides keys to the 12 genera (Asterodiaspis, Asterolecanium, Bambusaspis, Grammococcus, Mycetococcus, Mycococcus, Neoasterodiaspis, Palmaspis, Planchonia, Pollinia, RusseIIaspis and ScIerosococcus) representing the 64 species of pit scales found in North and South America. The subfamily Asterolecaniinae contains 56 different species in eight genera (Asterodiaspis, Asterolecanium, Bambusaspis, Grammococcus, Neoasterodiaspis, Palmaspis, Planchonia and RusseIIaspis). From these, 48 species in the genera Asterodiaspis, Asterolecanium, Bambusaspis, Neoasterodiaspis, Palmaspis, Planchonia and RusseIIaspis are described and illustrated. Eight species of Grammococcus and Palmaspis were not described (but were included in the generic key) because recent descriptions are available. From the 48 species included in this study, 11 new species were described and illustrated including five species of Bambusaspis, four species of Palmaspis and two species of Asterolecanium. Also, three species in the genus Bambusaspis were synonymized, and the genus Grammococcus was included in the subfamily Asterolecaniinae. In the United States, 18 species of the subfamily Asterolecaniinae occur in seven genera (three in Asterodiaspis, four in Asterolecanium, six in Bambusaspis, one in Neoasterodiaspis, one in Palmaspis, two in Planchonia and one in RusseIIaspis). From these, 14 species have been introduced into the United States: in the genera Asterodiaspis (three species), Asterolecanium (one species), Bambusaspis (six species), Neoasterodiaspis (one species), Planchonia (two species) and RusseIIaspis (one species). Only Asterolecanium agauis, A. grandiculum, A. puteanum and Palmaspis inlabefacta are considered native to the United States. In North and South America, all three introduced species in the genus Asterodiaspis feed exclusively on oaks. In the New World, the genus Asterolecanium contains 12 species, including two new species described here. Eleven species of the bamboofeeding genus Bambusaspis are found in the New World, including five new species. The two species of the palm-infesting genus Grammococcus are found exclusively in the Neotropics, while the two oak-infesting species of Mycetococcus are restricted to the Western United States and Mexico. Mycococcus coperniciae is known only from palms in Cuba. Neoasterodiaspis adjuncta is an oak-infesting species recorded from New York, which was introduced from Southeast Asia. Some 24 species of the exclusively palm feeding genus Palmaspis have been recorded from the New World, including four new species. The introduced genus Planchonia is represented by two species in North and South America. PoIIinia poIIini is an introduced pest in olive-growing areas (e.g., California and Argentina) of both continents. In addition, the four species of Sclerosococcus occur on bromeliads in North and South America, and Russellaspis pustulans occurs on plants in over 46 plant families. From a consensus tree of the 40 most parsimonious trees based on 43 morphological characters of the adult females, the phylogenetic relationships of 38 species in the subfamily Asterolecaniinae were evaluated. We conclude that most genera are monophyletic, while the genera Asterolecanium and Palmaspis appear to be paraphyletic. Pit scale biodiversity has not been adequately investigated, and many additional discoveries of new species are expected, especially from the tropical regions.