Kosztarab, M.P. 1996 . Scale insects of Northeastern North America. Identification, biology, and distribution. Virginia Museum of Natural History Martinsburg, Virginia 650 pp.

Notes: Includes descriptions, illustrations, keys, and pertinent taxonomic data on about 240 species that occur outdoors; indices to distribution in northeastern North America, host plants, natural enemies (as well as ants and other associated organisms), and scale insect taxa by scientific and common names; 34 pages of references.