Hakkonen, H., & Pimentel, D. 1984 New approach for selecting biological control agents.. Canadian Entomologist 116: 1109-1121.

Notes: The success of introducing natural enemies for biological control was found to be about 75% higher employing new parasite-host (predator-prey) associations than those based on long-evolved associations between parasites and hosts. The lack of evolved inter-specific balance in new species associations appears to explain the higher success rate. New exploiter-victim associations expand opportunities for the biological control of both introduced and native pests and should be used as the preferred method in selecting biological control agents. Target pests identified with the number of their introduced natural enemies include Aonidiella citrina, Asterolecanium pustulans, Ceroplastes cirripediformis, Chrysomphalus aonidum, Eriococcus coriaceus, Lepidosaphes ficus, Orthezia insignis, Parlatoria blanchardi, Planococcoides njalensis, Pseudococcus comstocki, P. fragilis, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus and Unaspis yanonensis. Species of target pests for which successful biological control resulted include Aonidiella aurantii, Aspidiotus destructor, Asterolecanium miliaris, A. pustulans, Chrysomphalus dictyospermi, Dysmicoccus boninsis, Icerya aegyptiaca, I. montserratensis, Ischnaspis longirostris, Lecanium tiliae, Phenacoccus aceris, Planococcus citri, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, Saccharicoccus sacchari, Saissetia oleae and S. nigra.