Dowell, R.V., Gill, R.J., Jeske, D.R., & Hoddle, M.S. 2016 Exotic Terrestrial Macro-Invertebrate Invaders in California from 1700 to 2015: An Analysis of Records. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences Series 4, 63(3): 63-157


  • distribution
  • economic importance
  • Notes: We document that 1,686 exotic terrestrial macro-invertebrates from 278 families have developed self-sustaining populations in California, USA over the period 1700 to 2015. It is anticipated that invasion rates for invertebrates will continue to increase and more exotic organisms will establish in California because of increasing trade and tourism and a corresponding lack of increased resources for pest surveillance, detection, and postincursion management.