Family Stigmacoccidae

Stigmacoccus Hempel


Stigmacoccus Hempel, 1900a: 399. Type species: Stigmacoccus asper Hempel, by monotypy and original designation.

Stigmatococcus Lindinger, 1937: 196. Unjustified emendation; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 189.

Stigmacoccus; Hodgson & Foldi, 2006: 107. Notes: Genus transferred to the family Stigmacoccidae.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Hempel (1900a) and by Morrison (1928).

SYSTEMATICS: The main distinguishing character (adult female) of this genus is the presence at dorso-anterior apex of body of a heavily chitinized area (Hempel, 1900a; Morrison, 1928). Foldi (1997a) and Ben-Dov (2005a) included this genus toghether with Xylococcus, Xylococculus and Jansenus in the subfamily Xylococcinae. Hodgson & Foldi (2006) distinguished this genus, based on male characters, and assigned it to a new family, Stigmacoccidae.

KEYS: Foldi 1997a: 192 (female) [Xylococcinae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 288]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy: 233]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 20]; Foldi1997a [taxonomy: 192]; Foldi1999 [taxonomy: 319-320]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 217]; Foldi2006 [taxonomy: 108-112]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description: 399-401]; Hempel1912 [taxonomy: 17]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 95,107]; HodgsoGaBo2007 [taxonomy, description: 1-55]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 196]; MacGil1921 [taxonomy: 74]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 16,19,37-40,45,135,2]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 189].

Stigmacoccus asper Hempel


Stigmacoccus asper Hempel, 1900a: 400. Type data: BRAZIL: Sao Paulo State, banks of Mogy-Guasii river, near Pirassununga, on Inga sp. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Sao Paulo: Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, Brazil. Described: female. Illust.

HOST: Fabaceae: Inga [Hempel1900a, Foldi1997a, Foldi1999].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Hempel1900a, Foldi1999]).

BIOLOGY: Attended by an ant, Camponotus sp. in Sao Paulo, Brazil (Hempel, 1900a).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Hempel (1900a) and by Morrison (1928). Description and illustration of adult male by Foldi (1999).

STRUCTURE: SEM micrographs of several structures of the adult male given by Foldi (1999).

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 289]; BogoWaMa2001 [host, distribution, chemistry: 275-278]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 233]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 20]; Foldi1997a [life history, taxonomy, host: 192-193]; Foldi1999 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 323-326]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 217]; Hempel1900a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 400]; Hempel1912 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 17]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 37-40,222].

Stigmacoccus garmilleri Foldi


Stigmacoccus garmilleri Foldi, 1995a: 173. Type data: MEXICO: Chiapas, Huitecap, on Quercus sp., iii.1992, Coll. R. Greenberg & C. Macias. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France. Described: female. Illust.

HOST: Fagaceae: Quercus [Foldi1995a, Foldi1997a].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Mexico (Chiapas [Foldi1995a]).

BIOLOGY: Trees in pasture areas and on the forest edge have dense colonies at all heights measured, whereas scale insect colonies in the forest interior had significantly greater numbers of scale insects at the highest height measured. Significantly longer anal filaments were found in forest trees compared to pasture trees may have been due to greater exposure of the pasture trees to winds and rain, which can break filaments. Filaments also may be broken by wasps or birds feeding on the honeydew. Breakage is apparently not detrimental to the insects; they can produce a tube long enough to secrete honeydew drops within 24 hours.(Gamper, et al., 2011)

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female by Foldi (1995a). Description and illustration of second instar cyst stage by Foldi (1995a).

STRUCTURE: Adult female forms a hard, black test on the branches (Foldi, 1995a)

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue: 289]; Foldi1995a [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 173-175]; Foldi1997a [host, taxonomy: 193]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 217]; GamperKoGa2011 [distribution, ecology, structure: 1-14]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796].

Stigmacoccus paranaensis Foldi


Stigmacoccus paranaensis Foldi, 2006: 108. Type data: BRAZIL: Parana, Vila Velha, on trunk of Inga sp.; collected 8.xi.1985 by I. Foldi. Holotype female. Type depository: Paris: Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, France; type no. 10365-1. Described: female and first instar. Illust.

HOST: Fabaceae: Inga [Foldi2006].

DISTRIBUTION: Neotropical: Brazil (Parana [Foldi2006]).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, female cyst stage and first instar nymph by Foldi (2006).

CITATIONS: Foldi2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 108-112]; HodgsoHa2013 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 796].