Family Phoenicococcidae

Phoenicococcus Cockerell


Phoenicococcus Cockerell, 1899j: 262. Type species: Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell, by monotypy and original designation.

Phoenicoccus; Ferris, 1957b: 65. Misspelling of genus name.

Kermicoides Tang, 1977: 24. Type species: Kermicoides minimus Tang, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymy by Tang, 1992: 669.

GENERAL REMARKS: Generic descriptions by Cockerell (1899j) and Stickney (1934).

STRUCTURE: Adult female body moderately elliptical at first, becoming rounder as full development is approached; general outline continued evenly around posterior end; segmentation obscure except on ventromesal region of thorax and abdomen; in younger specimens, derm slightly sclerotic, in older ones, dorsal and lateral surfaces strongly sclerotic, ventral surface lightly sclerotic (Stickney, 1934).

SYSTEMATICS: Although orginally described in the Pseudococcidae, Stickney (1934) created the familiy Phoenicococcidae for this genus.

KEYS: Ezzat 1958: 250 (female) [Key to genera of the Phoenicococcinae]; MacGillivray 1921: 211 (female) [Genera of the Cylindrococcinae]; Cockerell 1899m: 277 (female) [Tables for the determination of Dactylopiini genera].

CITATIONS: Balach1948b [taxonomy: 257, 258, 260]; Borchs1966 [catalogue, taxonomy: 25]; BrownMc1962 [taxonomy: 161]; Cocker1899j [description, distribution, host: 262]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 277]; Ezzat1958 [distribution, taxonomy: 250]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, taxonomy: 88]; Ferris1921b [taxonomy: 91]; Ferris1937 [taxonomy: 7]; Ferris1942 [description: SIV-443, SIV-446]; Ferris1957b [taxonomy: 65]; Green1922 [taxonomy: 360]; KozarDr1998k [catalogue, distribution, taxonomy: 451]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 81]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 193]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 211]; McDani1974 [taxonomy: 423]; MohammMoMo1997 [taxonomy: 206]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 154]; Porcel2002 [life history: 191]; Silves1939 [description: 706-707]; Stickn1934 [description, distribution, taxonomy: 31, 32, 33, 34]; Tang1992 [distribution, taxonomy: 24]; Yang1982 [taxonomy: 118].

Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell


Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell, 1899j: 262. Type data: ALGERIA: on Phoenix sp., 08/07/1890, by C.L. Marlatt. Syntypes, female. Type depository: Washington: United States National Entomological Collection, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, District of Columbia, USA. Described: female.

Sphaerococcus draperi Newstead, 1906: 70. Type data: EGYPT: Delta Barrage, on "date palm". Syntypes, female. Type depository: London: The Natural History Museum, England, UK. Synonymy by Ferris, 1942: SIV-444.

Sphaerococcus marlatti; Newstead, 1911: 104. Change of combination.

Phaenococcus marlatti; Wardle, 1929: 291. Misspelling of genus name.

Kermicoides minimus Tang, 1977: 24-25. Holotype female. Type depository: Shanxi: Entomological Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, China. Described: female. Illust. Synonymy by Tang, 1992: 669-670. Notes: Tang (1992) states that this species has been identified as belonging in the Phoenicococcidae.

COMMON NAMES: date palm scale [Newste1907a]; Marlatt scale [Bottel1929]; Marlatti scale [Bottel1924]; red date palm scale [KozarDr1998k]; red date scale [SticknBaSi1950, Blicke1965].

FOES: ACARI Eupodidae [SticknBaSi1950]. COLEOPTERA Coccinellidae: Chilocorus sp. [Bouhel1935], Pharoscymnus anchorago [Balach1925a]. Cucujidae: Laemonphloeus sp. [SticknBaSi1950]. Nitidulidae: Cybocephalus californicus [SticknBaSi1950].

HOSTS: Arecaceae: Calamus sp. [SticknBaSi1950], Daemonorops sp. [SticknBaSi1950], Pandanus sp. [SticknBaSi1950], Phoenix canariensis [SticknBaSi1950, Porcel1992], Phoenix dactylifera [Houard1922, Balach1938a, BenDov2012], Phoenix reclinata [SticknBaSi1950], Phoenix roebelenii [Sinaco1995a], Phoenix sp. [SticknBaSi1950], Washingtonia filifera [AbouEl2001]. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus sp. [KozarDr1998k]

DISTRIBUTION: Nearctic: United States of America (Arizona [Bartle1929, Ferris1942] (While once found in Arizona, Phoenicococcus marlatti has since been eradicated from the state (Stickney et al., 1950). Ferris (1942) states that P. marlatti has been introduced with the date palm.), California [Ferris1942, SticknBaSi1950] (While once found in California, Phoenicococcus marlatti has since been eradicated from the state (Stickney et al., 1950). Ferris (1942) states that P. marlatti has been introduced with the date palm.), Texas [Ferris1942, SticknBaSi1950] (While once found in Texas, Phoenicococcus marlatti has since been eradicated from the state (Stickney et al., 1950). Ferris (1942) states that P. marlatti has been introduced with the date palm.)). Neotropical: Brazil (Sao Paulo [Lepage1938]). Oriental: China (Shanghai [Tao1999]). Palaearctic: Algeria [Buxton1920]; China (Henan (=Honan) [Hua2000], Shaanxi (=Shensi) [Tang1984b], Shanxi (=Shansi) [Tao1999]); Egypt [Buxton1920, AbouEl2001]; France [Balach1930a, Germai2011]; Iran [Seghat1977, KozarFoZa1996]; Iraq [Dowson1935]; Israel [KozarDr1998k]; Italy [Porcel1992, LongoMaPe1995] (Longo et al. (1995) lists this as an introduced and acclimatized species.); Japan [KozarDr1998k]; Libya [Martin1958, MohammMoMo1997]; Madeira Islands [Balach1938a, FrancoRuMa2011]; Morocco [Bouhel1935]; Russia [KozarDr1998k]; Saudi Arabia [Matile1984c]; Sicily [LongoMaPe1995] (Longo et al. (1995) lists this as an introduced and acclimatized species.); Spain [GomeziFeCa1999]; Tunisia [Morris1921a].

BIOLOGY: The female of this species develops through three stages and the male through five (Stickney et al., 1950). Part of the eggs of this species hatch within the mother and the other part hatch after being laid in the normal manner. In the United States, this species has four generations per year (Avidov & Harpaz, 1969).

GENERAL REMARKS: Detailed description of physical characters, life history and economic importance by Stickney et al. (1950).

STRUCTURE: In the first stage of both sexes and the adult male stage eyes and antennae are well developed and legs are present. Wax forms in curly shining white strands that make a fluffy cottony mass about the body, being densest in the second stage male, but abundant enough in all stages to cover the body completely. Eggs are oval, smooth and pinkish with a pearly luster (Stickney et al., 1950). Adult female rounded, slightly pear-shaped, light pink to dark red in color. Male very small and wingless (Avidov & Harpaz, 1969).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: This species originated in the Middle East and North Africa and has been transported on infested date palms. It is regarded as a serious pest of date palms. Although several chemical treatments for the control of the scale have been tried, none of them are recommended. Good results were obtained exposing roots of the host to moist heat and hot water (Stickney et al., 1950).

KEYS: Borchsenius 1973: 261 (female) [Pests of date palms].

CITATIONS: AAEE1930 [taxonomy: 639]; AAEE1931 [taxonomy: 1287, 1306]; AAEE1937 [taxonomy: 539, 556]; AbouEl2001 [distribution, host: 187]; Avidov1961 [taxonomy: 152, 510, 528]; AvidovHa1969 [description, distribution, economic importance, host, life history: 191-192]; Balach1925a [biological control, distribution: 170]; Balach1927 [distribution, host: 188]; Balach1928d [biological control, distribution, host: 290]; Balach1930a [distribution, host: 184]; Balach1938a [distribution, host: 146]; Balach1946 [taxonomy: 216]; Balach1954e [taxonomy: 13]; Balach1958a [distribution, host: 45, 48]; BalachMe1935 [distribution, host, illustration: 610-612]; Bartle1929 [distribution: 20]; BazaroSh1971 [description, distribution, illustration, taxonomy: 39-40]; Beccar1959 [distribution, host: 76]; BenDov1985 [illustration: 169]; BenDov1990c [illustration, taxonomy: 100]; BenDov2012 [catalogue, distribution, host: 34, 44]; Blicke1965 [taxonomy: 298, 313]; Bodenh1929 [distribution: 34]; Bodenh1929b [distribution, host: 104, 114]; Bodenh1930a [taxonomy: 276]; Bodenh1935 [distribution, host: 251, 270]; Bodenh1935c [distribution: 1155]; Bodenh1937 [taxonomy: 7, 26, 220]; Bodenh1943 [distribution, host: 26, 29]; Bodenh1944a [distribution: 83]; Bodenh1944b [distribution, host, taxonomy: 86, 87, 99]; BodenhTh1929 [distribution, host: 34, 114-115, 117]; Borchs1937 [host, taxonomy: 189, 255]; Borchs1966 [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 26]; Borchs1973 [taxonomy: 261]; Borden1921 [biological control, chemical control, description, distribution, economic importance, illustration, life history: 659-667]; Bottel1924 [distribution, economic importance: 15]; Bottel1929 [economic importance, life history: 247]; Bouhel1935 [biological control, distribution: 20]; Boyden1941 [distribution, economic importance: 4, 5]; Brown1965 [taxonomy: 189, 199, 200]; BrownMc1962 [chemistry, description, taxonomy: 161-162, 163]; Buxton1920 [chemical control, description, distribution: 297, 298-299]; CarpenEl1978 [distribution, host, life history: 5]; CCNI1989 [taxonomy: 158]; Cocker1899j [description, distribution, host: 262-263]; Cocker1899m [taxonomy: 277]; Cocker1902y [distribution, host: 107]; Cocker1907 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history: 191-192]; Cook1914 [distribution, host, illustration: 440-441]; CulturPaDa1932 [distribution, host: 159]; Danzig1993 [distribution, taxonomy: 74]; DelassBaBr1927 [description, distribution, host: 183-184]; Dowson1921 [chemical control, distribution: 65]; Dowson1935 [distribution, host: 225]; Draper1907 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 12]; Ehrhor1913 [taxonomy: 123]; ElmerCaCl1968 [biological control, distribution, economic importance, host: 81]; Essig1915a [chemical control, description, host, illustration, life history: 123]; Essig1926 [description, distribution, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 276-277]; Essig1931 [chemical control, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 126-127, 533, 534, 573]; EssigHo1934 [description, distribution: 50]; EssigHo1944 [distribution, host: 64]; Ezzat1958 [distribution, taxonomy: 250]; Fauvel1928 [distribution, host: 117]; Fernal1903b [catalogue, distribution, host: 88]; Ferris1942 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: SIV-443, SIV-444]; Fleury1933 [distribution, host: 527-528]; FoexVa1919 [taxonomy: 338]; Foldi1995 [taxonomy: 266, 285, 286, 287]; Foldi2001 [economic importance: 307]; Forbes1907 [chemical control, economic importance, host: 193-207]; Forbes1913 [chemical control, distribution, host: 415-416]; FrancoRuMa2011 [distribution: 18,25]; Fraser1924 [chemical control, host: 707]; Gazala1931 [host: 51]; George1934 [taxonomy: 245, 283]; Germai2008 [distribution: 77-87]; Germai2011 [distribution, economic importance: 31-34]; Germai2011a [distribution, economic importance: 8]; Glick1922 [distribution, host: 59]; GomeziFeCa1999 [distribution, economic importance, host: 288]; Green1923a [distribution, host: 469]; Hartma1916 [distribution, host: 95]; Houard1922 [distribution: 51]; HowellWi1976 [distribution, host, illustration: 186, 188]; Hua2000 [distribution, host: 140]; Kaussa1949 [distribution: 4]; KozarDr1998k [catalogue, distribution, host, taxonomy: 451]; KozarFoZa1996 [distribution: 66]; KozarWa1985 [distribution: 81]; KreiteAuGe2006 [distribution, economic importance, host: 143]; Lashin1956 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 124]; Lepage1938 [distribution, host: 433]; LepineMi1931 [distribution, host: 254]; Lindin1908 [taxonomy: 89]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy: 374, 376]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 146]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 193]; Lindin1958 [taxonomy: 371]; Lizery1943 [distribution, taxonomy: 456-457]; LongoMaPe1995 [distribution: 125]; MacGil1921 [distribution, host: 211]; Mackie1920 [chemical control: 432]; Mackie1934a [chemical control, host: 9]; Maranh1946 [taxonomy: 165]; Marlat1928 [distribution, host: 153]; Martin1958 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 121-122]; Mason1908 [distribution, host: 175]; Matile1984c [distribution, host: 223]; McDani1974 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 423, 424]; McKenz1956 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 166, 167]; MillerGuWi1998 [taxonomy: 290]; Moghad2004 [distribution, host: 1]; Moghad2013a [distribution, host: 62]; MoghadTa2010 [distribution: 40]; MohammMoMo1997 [distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 190, 193, 206-209, 231, 232]; Morril1913 [distribution, host, taxonomy: 186, 192]; Morris1921a [description, distribution, host: 669-676]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy: 154]; Moulto1931 [chemical control: 758]; Newste1906 [description, host: 70]; Newste1907a [chemical control, description, distribution, host: 12]; Newste1911 [description, distribution, host, taxonomy: 104]; Nishid2002 [catalogue: 144]; Nixon1945 [distribution, economic importance, host: 38]; ODell1931a [taxonomy: 34]; PellizGe2010a [distribution, host: 505]; Pierce1917 [economic importance: 162]; Popeno1912 [biological control, distribution, host: 871]; Popeno1913 [chemical control, description, distribution, life history,: 151-153]; Popeno1923 [distribution, host: 205]; Porcel1992 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 32-33]; Quayle1938a [description, distribution, host, illustration: 428-429]; Ramach1921 [taxonomy: 168]; Ramach1922 [description, distribution, host: 10-11]; RLER1935 [economic importance, host: 61]; Rungs1948 [distribution, host: 115]; Sassce1914 [distribution, host: 243]; Schmid1940 [taxonomy: 213, 230]; Seghat1977 [distribution, host: 5]; Silves1939 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 707-708]; Sinaco1995a [description, distribution, illustration, host: 55-61]; Skinne1925 [distribution, host, illustration: 50, 53]; Skinne1926 [distribution, host: 23]; Stickn1924 [biology, distribution, host: 16]; Stickn1934 [description, distribution, host, illustration, taxonomy: 37-49]; SticknBaSi1950 [biological control, chemical control, description, distribution, economic importance, host, illustration, life history, taxonomy: 8-15]; Strong1922 [distribution, host: 779]; Tang1977 [description, distribution, host, illustration: 24-25]; Tang1984b [distribution, host: 128]; Tang1992 [taxonomy: 669-670]; Tao1999 [distribution, host: 47]; Tippin1971a [chemical control: 180]; Trabut1910 [host, illustration: 68]; Trabut1911 [distribution, host, illustration: 54]; Vayssi1940 [taxonomy: 33]; Wardle1929 [host: 291]; Wilsie1913 [distribution, economic importance: 538]; Yang1982 [description, illustration: 118-119].