Family Marchalinidae

Marchalina Vayssière


Marchalina Vayssière, 1923a: 427. Type species: Monophlebus hellenicus Gennadius, by monotypy and original designation.

Marshalina; Hadzibejli, 1959a: 575. Misspelling of genus name.

GENERAL REMARKS: Definition and characters by Vayssière (1923, 1926), Ferris (1925), Morrison (1928), Borchsenius (1950b) and by Hodgson & Gounari (2006).

SYSTEMATICS: Main characteristics (adult female) of this genus are: elongate body; membranous derm; 11-segmented antenna; absence of mouth parts; seven pairs of abdominal spiracles; absence of ventral cicatrices (Vayssiere, 1926; Morrison, 1928). Koteja (1996a: 68), Hodgson & Gounari (2006) and Hodgson & Foldi (2006) assigned this genus to the family Marchalinidae.

KEYS: Borchsenius 1950b: 32 (female) [Genera of USSR]; Vayssière 1926: 258-259 (female) [Margarodidae]; Vayssière 1923a: 427 (female) [Monophlebinae].

CITATIONS: BenDov2005a [taxonomy, catalogue: 33]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy: 32, 41]; Ferris1925 [taxonomy, description: 228-229]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 427]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; GullanSj2001 [taxonomy: 257-278]; Hadzib1959a [taxonomy: 575]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy: 131-132]; HodgsoGo2006 [taxonomy, description: 1-32]; Koteja1996a [taxonomy: 68]; Lindin1937 [taxonomy: 188]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description: 21, 91-94, 219]; MorrisMo1966 [taxonomy, catalogue: 115, 116]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 170-171]; Vayssi1923a [taxonomy, description: 427]; Vayssi1926 [taxonomy, description: 258, 260].

Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius)


Monophlebus hellenicus Gennadius, 1883: 32. Type data: GREECE: Attica, on Pinus halepensis. Syntypes, female. Described: female. Notes: Depository of type material unknown.

Dactylopius caricus Gennadius, 1883: 51. Type data: TURKEY: Mylassa, on Pinus laricio var. tauricus. Syntypes, immature. Described: immature. Synonymy by Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 2005: 294.

Pseudococcus caricus; Fernald, 1903b: 99. Change of combination.

Marchalina hellenica; Vayssière, 1923a: 427. Change of combination.

Marchalina hellenica; Schmutterer et al., 1957: 422. Notes: Incorrect citation of "Germ." as author.

Marchalina caucasica Hadzibejli, 1969: 612. Type data: REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA: Caucasus, Bakuryani, on Picea engelmanni. Syntypes, female, male and first instar. Type depository: St. Petersburg: Zoological Museum, Academy of Science, Russia. Described: female, male and first instar. Illust. Synonymy by Jashenko, 1999: 43.

Marchallina hellenica; Pellizzari et al., 2011: 292. Misspelling of genus name.

FOES: ACARINA Anystidae: Anystis baccarum Linnaeus [UlgentSzUy2013]. Trombidiidae: Allothrombium pulvinum [UlgentSzUy2013], Allothrombium triticium Zhang [UlgentSzUy2013]. COLEOPTERA Cantharidae: Dasytes flavipes Ol. [Vayssi1926, Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976]. Coccinellidae: Exochomus illaesicollis Roub. [Hadzib1969], Hippodamia variegata Goeze [Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976], Myrrha octodecimguttata [UlgentSzUy2013], Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant [Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976, UlgentSzUy2013], Scymnus subvillosus (Goeze) [UlgentSzUy2013]. Dermestidae: Anthrenus museorum L. [Nicolo1965]. DIPTERA Chameamyiidae: Leucopis obscura Haliday [Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976], Neoleucopis kartliana (Tanasijtshuk) [UlgentSzUy2013]. HEMIPTERA Anthocoridae: Cardiastethus nazarenus Reuter [UlgentSzUy2013], Elatophilus pachycnemis Horvath [UlgentSzUy2013]. LEPIDOPTERA Phycitidae: Cadra woodiella Richards & Thos. [Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976]. NEUROPTERA Chrysopidae: Chrysopa flavifrons Brauer. [Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976], Chrysopa pallens (=septempunctata) Wesm. [Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976, UlgentSzUy2013], Chrysoperla lucasina (Lacroix) [UlgentSzUy2013], Dichochrysa genei [UlgentSzUy2013], Dichochrysa prasina (Burmeister) [UlgentSzUy2013]. Hemerobiidae: Wesmaelius subnebulosus (Stephens) [UlgentSzUy2013]. Rhaphididae: Rhaphidia (=Phaeostigma) notata F. [Nicolo1965, ArgyriStMo1976, UlgentSzUy2013].

HOSTS: Pinaceae: Abies cephalonica [Bacand2002, Bacand2004], Abies nordmenniana [Hadzib1969, Hadzib1983], Picea engelmanni [Hadzib1969], Picea orientalis [Hadzib1969, Hadzib1983], Pinus brutia [PellizPoSe2011], Pinus halepensis [Ferris1925, Vayssi1926, Bodenh1953a], Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex K. Koch [UlgentSzUy2013], Pinus laricio tauricus [Gennad1883, BenDov1994, BenDovMa2005], Pinus nigra salzmannii J.F.Arnold [UlgentSzUy2013], Pinus pinea [Bodenh1953a, MarottPr1994], Pinus sosnowskyi [Hadzib1969], Pinus sylvestris [Vayssi1926, Bodenh1953a].

DISTRIBUTION: Palaearctic: Armenia [Bodenh1953a]; Crete [PellizPoSe2011]; Georgia [Hadzib1983]; Greece [Ferris1925, Vayssi1926, Nicolo1965]; Italy [MarottPr1994, BarbagBiBo1995]; Russia (Krasnodar Kray [Borchs1950b]); Turkey [Gennad1883, Vayssi1926, Bodenh1953a, BenDovMa2005, KaydanUlEr2007].

BIOLOGY: Develops one annual generation in Greece (Nicolopoulos, 1965) and in Turkey (Bodenheimer, 1953a). Bodenheimer (1953a) reported that males were not recorded in Turkey and reproduction is parthenogenetic. On the other hand, Nicolopoulos (1965) recorded and photographed adult males from Greece. In Georgia one generation develops in two years (Hadzibejli, 1969).

GENERAL REMARKS: Description and illustration of adult female, 3rd instar female nymph, 2nd instar nymph, 1st instar nymph, male prepupa, male pupa and apterous adult male by Hodgson & Gounari (2006). Decsription and illustration of adult male (apterous) by Hodgson & Foldi (2006). Description and illustration of adult female by Morrison (1923), Vayssière (1923), Ferris (1925) and by Hadzibejli (1969) (as M. caucasica). Description and illustration of nymphs by Morrison (1923), Vayssière (1926) and by Hadzibejli (1969).

SYSTEMATICS: The type material of Dactylopius caricus Gennadius, 1883 (a junior synonym of this species), is lost (Ben-Dov & Matile-Ferrero, 2005).

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL: A scale insect of great significance to apiculture in Greece and Turkey (Nicolopoulos, 1965; Santas, 1989). Reported to damage Pinus pinea trees in Ischia Island, Naples Province, Italy (Marotta & Priore, 1994).

KEYS: Tang & Hao 1995: 171, 616 (female) [Palearctic region]; Borchsenius 1950b: 41 (female) [USSR].

CITATIONS: ArgyriStMo1976 [host, distribution, biological control: 22]; Bacand2002 [host, distribution, economic importance: 353-354]; Bacand2004 [host, distribution, economic importance: 127-130]; BacandSaPa2004 [host, distribution, life cycle, economic importance, taxonomy: 169-176]; BacandSaPa2006 [economic importance, chemistry: 21-31]; BarbagBiBo1995 [distribution: 39]; BenDov1994 [catalogue: 38]; BenDov2005a [taxonomy, host, distribution, catalogue, economic importance: 33-35]; BenDovMa2005 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 293-294]; Bodenh1953a [taxonomy, description, host, distribution, life history: 152-154]; Borchs1950b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 41]; Buchne1965 [taxonomy, structure: 295-296]; Cocker1897 [host, distribution: 200]; Cocker1902q [taxonomy, distribution: 233]; Erling1995 [taxonomy, life history, host, distribution: 721-724]; Erling1995a [taxonomy, description: 141-145]; Fernal1903b [catalogue: 21, 99]; Ferris1925 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 228-230]; Foldi1998 [catalogue: 427]; Foldi2001a [taxonomy: 206]; Gennad1883 [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 32]; Gounar2006 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 8-12]; GullanCo2007 [taxonomy: 413-425]; Gurkan2005 [host, distribution, life history: 2-6]; Hadzib1957a [host, distribution: 100-102]; Hadzib1969 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 612-625]; Hadzib1983 [host, distribution: 266]; HatjinBo2009 [economic importance, life history, host, distribution, morphology: 162-167]; HodgsoFo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 132-137]; HodgsoGo2006 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 1-32]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 43-44]; Jashen1999 [taxonomy, host, distribution: 44]; KaydanUlEr2007 [host, distribution: 98]; Koteja1996a [taxonomy, illustration, description: 69-71]; KotejaPyVo2003 [taxonomy, structure: 253]; Lindin1912b [taxonomy, description, host, distribution: 257, 385]; Lindin1935 [taxonomy: 142]; Lindin1936 [taxonomy: 160]; MargarBaPe2003 [taxonomy, host, distribution, chemistry: 447-453]; MarottPr1994 [taxonomy, host, distribution, economic importance: 195-202]; Mendel2000 [host, distribution: 221, 234]; MitaTsTs2002 [life history, chemistry, ecology: 572-578]; Morris1928 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution: 92-94, 224]; Nicolo1965 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, economic importance, biological control: 1-31]; Peleka1962 [host, distribution: 60]; PellizPoSe2011 [distribution, host: 292]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogenetics, taxonomy: 199]; RossHaOk2012 [phylogeny, taxonomy: 199]; SchmutKlLu1957 [host, distribution, taxonomy: 422]; TangHa1995 [taxonomy, description: 171-172]; Trembl1988a [taxonomy, host, distribution: 207]; Trembl1999 [economic importance: 19-28]; TsagarEm2007 [host, distribution: 224-225]; UlgentCaKa2004 [host, distribution, life history: 102]; UlgentSzUy2013 [ecology, economic importance, host, illustration, life history: 529–537]; Vayssi1923a [taxonomy, description, illustration: 422-423, 427]; Vayssi1926 [taxonomy, description, illustration, host, distribution, life history, biological control: 260-266]; YesilEs2005 [host, distribution. life history, ecology, economic importance: 451-458]; ZafiriFaEm2007 [life history, host, distribution: 105-106]; ZografGoHa2002 [host, distribution, life history, economic importance: 65-71].