Yousof, D.E., Mahmoud, M.E.E., & Hohamed, A.H. 2013 Prospects of Biological Control of Date Palm Green Pit Scale Insect Asterolecanium phoenicis Rao (Homoptera: Asterolecaniidae) in Sudan. Persian Gulf Crop Protection 2(2): 42-48

Notes: The Northern and River Nile States are the main areas for date production in Sudan. In 2008, one million trees out of five million trees grown in the two states were infested by green pit scale insect. A survey was carried out during August 2008 to July 2009 at Artigasha island, Eburgag, Elgaba, Elgolid, Old Dongola (Elgadar area) and Urbi to find out natural enemies of this pest and assess their role in natural regulation of its population. To determine the seasonal abundance of both green pit scale and associated natural enemies other study was conducted at Elgolid. Predators found in association with the green pit scale insect in all surveyed areas were nitidulid beetle Cypocephalus dudichi L., the ladybird Pharoscymnus numidicus Pic., and a chrysopid, Chrysoperla sp, these predators were observed attack the first pest stages and young females. The nitidulid beetle and the ladybird were relatively the most abundant predators (4.8/leaf). The percentage of scales with signs of predation 13% recorded in some areas. The parasitoid, Metaphycus sp. was found in association with the pest and the percentage of scales with exit hole; the sign of parasitism was 16% in some areas. The highest infestation level by green pit scale insect was recorded in Artigasha Island (209 scales/ sample) and the lowest was in Elburgag scheme (96 scales/ sample). The pest was found throughout the year and its population increased from October to January and decreased in August which can be attributed to climatic conditions. Parasitism with the Metaphycus sp was relatively high in October to February while the seasonal abundance of the predators was relatively low in December to March.