Yeh, Y.C., Li, R.Z., & Chen, C.N. 2006 [Effects of temperature and host plant on the development and population parameters of the Madeira mealybug Phenacoccus madeirensis Green ]. . Formosan Entomologist 26(4): 329-342

Notes: The Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae); is a newly invasive pest in Taiwan. Phenacoccus madeirensis has a wide host range and a short generation time, but knowledge of its life cycle is very limited. We studied the effects of constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32 and 35°C ), with 70% relative humidity and a 12L:12D photoperiod, on the development, survival, and reproduction of Phenacoccus madeirensis reared on three representative host plants, namely tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanaceae), mung bean (Vigna radiata, Fabaceae), and hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa, Asteraceae). Data of the two-sex life table were collected to estimate its population parameters. Phenacoccus madeirensis reared on tomato leaves at 15 and 35°C and on mung bean leaves and hairy beggartick leaves at 35°C could not successfully complete its life cycle. The mealybug had the fastest development of all stages, on the three host plants at 30°C. The total developmental periods of female mealybugs on tomato, mung bean, and hairy beggartick were about 25, 19, and 20 days, respectively. Males took about 3-7 days longer to develop than females. The lowest mortalities on the three host plants were at 28, 25-30°C and 25-30°C, respectively. The mean longevity of P. madeirensis decreased with increasing temperature. The highest fecundities were 67 eggs on tomato leaves at 30°C, 493 eggs on mung bean leaves at 28°C and 141 eggs on hairy beggartick leaves at 25°C. Females reared at 28 and 32°C on tomato leaves laid empty ovisacs as did those at 32°C on mung bean leaves, and 30 and 32°C on hairy beggartick leaves. The highest net reproductive rate (R0) on tomato leaves was at 30°C, on mung bean leaves was at 28°C, and on hairy beggartick leaves was at 25°C. The highest intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) were 0.0282, 0.0679, and 0.0229 respectively on tomato leaves and mung bean leaves at 30°C and on hairy beggartick leaves at 25°C. Accordingly, the shortest doubling times (Dt) respectively on tomato and mung bean leaves were 24.6 and 10.2 days at 30°C, and 30.3 days on hairy beggartick leaves at 25°C. Both males and females had the shortest mean generation time (T) at 30°C, being 28, 25, and 25 days for the male and 40, 31, and 35 days for the female on the three plants, respectively. Thus, we concluded that the optimal temperature range for P. madeirensis population growth was 25-30°C, and mung bean was the most suitable host plant among the three plants tested. However, hairy beggartick might be the most important wild host plant for the completion of its life cycle year-round.