Yasnosh, V.A., Tabatadze, E.S., & Chkhaidze, L. 2005 Scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccinea) and their parasitoids on citrus plants in Georgia.. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, held at Plant Protection Research Institute, Adana/ Turkey, 19-23 April 2004. Adana Zirai Muscadele Arastirma Enstitusu. Adana, Turkey 408 pp.
Notes: ABSTRACT : The Black Sea coast, especially Georgia, is the principal region of citrus groves in the Caucasus. Recently, twenty-three species of scale insects were recorded on citrus plants in Georgia. Citrus pests are mainly adventive species distributed together with introduced plants. The citrus scale insects may be divided into four groups. The principal group includes the widely distributed and the most important pests: Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell), Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), Ceroplastes japonicus Green, C. sinensis Del Guercio. The second group consisting of Pulvinaria aurantii (Cockerell), and P. floccifera (Westwood), Aonidiella citrina Coquillett, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) causes damage to citrus plants only in some regions. The rare species form the third group: Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock), Planococcus citri (Risso), Saissetia oleae (Bernard). The other 11 species (4th group) have no economic importance because of control by natural enemies or unfavourable climatic conditions. Twenty-two species of scale insect parasitoids in families Aphelinidae,Encyrtidae and Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) are recorded in citrus groves A list of scale insects and their parasitoids is presented. The economical importance of scale insects and effectivness of parasitoids as biocontrol agents are discussed.