Williams, D.J., & Miller, D.R. 2002 Systematic studies on the Antonina crawi Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) complex of pest mealybugs.. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104(4): 896-911.

Notes: Careful analysis of specimens identified as Antonina crawi Cockerell has shown that three very similar species are involved, i.e., A. crawi, A. nakaharai Williams and Miller, new species, and A. socialis Newstead (reinstated status). A key is provided for 11 species reported on bamboos and a description is given for a bamboo-infesting species from Taiwan, i.e., A. maai Williams and Miller, new species. Antonina crawi is reported from China, Japan, and the U.S. (California) but is suspected to have disappeared from the latter country.