Wih, K., & Billah, M.K. 2012 Diversity of Fruit Flies and Mealybugs in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture 7: 39-45

Notes: Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a member of the family Anarcardiaceae, is one of the most common fruits in Ghana and could easily be cultivated in the northern part of the country. Mango production, however, has been threatened by insect and disease problems since commercial-scale production started in the Upper West Region. Asian fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera are destructive pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide, but little information has been obtained on their prevalence and diversity in the region since the first formal detection of Bactrocera invadens in 2005. Systematic trapping and host-fruit surveys conducted in 2007 confirmed the presence B. invadens in the region. We examined the diversity of fruit flies and mealybugs that have been observed to be major threats to mango and other crops in the Upper West Region. Nine fruit fly species (B. invadens, Ceratitis ditissima, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis bremii, Ceratitis cosyra, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, Dacus bivittatus and Dacus vertebratus and four mealybug species (Pseudococcus longispinus, Paracoccus marginatus, Rastrococcus invadens and Icerya sp.) were identified during the survey. While mango was dominated by R. invadens, the ornamental plants were mostly affected by Icerya sp., papaw by P. marginatus, and Jatropha species infested by P. longispinus. The mealybug species were fairly common in the region. In certain cases, other pest species such as aphids and whiteflies were found in close association (in complex mixtures) with the mealybugs.