Whitten, M.J., & Hoy, M.A. 1999 Genetic improvement and other genetic considerations for improving the efficacy and success rate of biological control.. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control. Academic Press San Diego et al. 1046


  • natural enemies
  • Notes: This section deals with breeding and selection for genetic improvements of natural enemies. They review the "overwhelmingly favorable record" for biological control in the classical sense, with reference to cost effectiveness; environmental acceptability; and safety record for control of arthropods, nematodes, weeds, and plant pathogens. It is also noted that biological control has been attempted on less than 5% of the 5000 or so arthropod pests, and that a substantial proportion of efforts have had limited or no success, as various others have noted. Pest species discussed include Aonidiella aurantii, Antonina graminis, Asterolecanium pustulans and Icerya purchasi.