Whiting, D.C., Hoy, L.E., Connolly, P.G., McDonald, R.M., & O'Connor, B.A. 1998 Effects of high-pressure water jets on armoured scale insects and other contaminants of harvested kiwifruit.. Proceedings of the 51st New Zealand Plant Protection Conference 211-215.

Notes: [Conference held at the Quality Hotel, Hamilton, New Zealand, 11-13 Aug 1998.] The potential of high-pressure water jets (HPJ) to kill or remove armoured scale insects (Hemiberlesia lataniae, H. rapax and Aspidiotus nerii) and other insects and mites from the surface of harvested kiwifruit, and the capacity of a hot water pretreatment (HWT) to enhance the HPJ effect was examined. Infested fruit were exposed to HPJ (0, 1000 or 2000 psi), either with or without HWT pretreatment (55 or 65°C for 30 seconds), and mortality and removal compared with fruit subjected to simulated standard packhouse brushing. The 1000 psi HPJ treatment did not dislodge scale insects, but the 2000 psi HPJ treatment resulted in increased incidence of partial removal. HPJ was more effective against all other contaminants present. Both HPJ and HWT alone caused high scale insect mortality. Although combination HWT with 2000 psi HPJ treatments were most successful against armoured scale; 17% of fruit were completely free of infestation after such treatment. By contrast, 99% of fruit were free of other contaminants after a combined treatment.