Vea, I.M., Tanaka, S., Tsuji, T., Shiotsuki, T., Jouraku, A., & Minakuchi, C. 2018 E93 expression and links to the juvenile hormone in hemipteran mealybugs with insights on female neoteny. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 104(2019):: 65–72
Notes: This study identifies three E93 isoforms on the 5’ end, based on Japanese mealybug cDNA and shows that female development occurs with the near absence of E93 transcripts, as opposed to male metamorphosis. Additionally, while male development is typically affected by exogenous juvenile hormone mimic treatments, females seem to remain insensitive to the treatment, and up-regulation of the juvenile hormone signaling is not observed. In this study, we emphasize the importance in examining atypical cases of metamorphosis as complementary systems to provide a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms underlying insect metamorphosis.