Vea, I.M. Gimaldi, D.A. 2012 Phylogeny of ensign scale insects (Hemiptera:Coccoidea: Ortheziidae) based on the morphology of Recent and Fossil Females.. Systematic Entomology 37: 758–783
Notes: The Ortheziidae (ensign scale insects) is a morphologically well-defined family. The morphology and occurrence in the fossil record suggests a probable early origin of the family in scale insect evolution. The present phylogenetic analysis - based on 69 morphological characters of female ortheziids, using 39 exemplar Recent species - provides the first analytical assessment of relationships among living genera of the family, as well as the relationships of eight fossil species, based on complete, well-preserved specimens in amber. Monophyly of the subfamilies Newsteadiinae, Ortheziinae and Ortheziolinae is supported, but Nipponortheziinae is found to be paraphyletic by inclusion of the Ortheziolinae. Thus, the subfamily Ortheziolinae is reduced in rank to tribe Ortheziolini stat.n., which now includes Matileortheziola Kozár & Foldi, Ortheziolacoccus Kozár, Ortheziolamameti Kozár and Ortheziola ¡ Sulc. Consequently, the tribes Matileortheziolini, Ortheziolacoccini and Ortheziolamametini are synonymized (syn.n.) here under Ortheziolini. Five new species and one new genus of fossil ensign scales are described from three amber deposits: Burmorthezia gen.n. with type species Burmorthezia kotejai sp.n. and also B. insolita sp.n., both in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (98 Ma) and Arctorthezia baltica sp.n. in Eocene Baltic amber (c. 43 Ma) based on second-instar nymphs; Mixorthezia kozari sp.n. and M. dominicana sp.n. in Miocene Dominican amber (c. 17 Ma) based on adult females. Fossil placements are unambiguous, with Burmorthezia forming a stem to crown-group (Recent and Tertiary) Ortheziidae. A summary of described fossil ortheziids is provided.