Uygun, N., Öncüer, C., Karaca, I., Yoldaş, Z., & Sengonca, C. 2001 An annotated list of the natural enemies of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Turkey.. Entomologica 33(1999): 231.


  • biological control
  • list
  • natural enemies
  • Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS VIII International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at Wye College (U.K.), Aug. 31st - Sept. 6th, 1998.] Abstract only. A list of the known natural enemies collected from the Coccoidea of Turkey was presented, based on the authors' collection data and from bibliographical sources. This includes 70 species belonging to 7 orders and 17 families. The most numerous family of predators is the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) with 30 species, while the most numerous hymenopteran parasitoid famlilies are the Aphelinidae with 21 species and the Encyrtidae with 12 species. The remaining orders include the Acarina, Thysanoptera, Heteroptera, neuroptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera, which have between 1 and =5 species each. Some of these natural enemies are considered to be effective in decreasing the scale populations. For instance, in our citrus ecosystem, 18 species of natural enemies are known for Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell). Other Diaspididae, from a variety of ecosystems, are particularly parasitised by severeal Aphytis spp. Twenty-five species of natuve natural enemies give good control of Planococcus citri Risso, while Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) completely controls Icerya purchasi Maskell. Seven new records of biocontrol agents in Turkey were discussed.