Turguter, S., & Ülgentürk, S. 2007 Karıncalar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) ve Coccoidea (Hemiptera: Sternoryncha) Türlerinin İlişkileri [Ants interactions with Coccoidea(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Species (Hemiptera: Sternoryncha)]. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi 13(3): 312-320
Notes: The ants and Coccoidea (scale insects) species that produce honeydew have diverse and interesting relationships. The ants use these Coccoidea as the source of carbohydrate, protein and lipid while the coccoids take advantage of being transported to new plants by ants so that they protect themselves from changing climate conditions and from their natural enemies. The presence of ants on the plants has two important effects; it increases the population of scale insects and increases the general well-being of the plants by hunting the pest on plant. The extermination of ants or ignoring the harmful effect of pesticides on ants during pesticide treatment results in the significant increase in the population of other pests on the plant. The floristic and/or structurally complex ecosystems may intrigue the ants tended to honeydew. The mutual relations between ant and scale insects in poly-cultural environments should be considered more seriously than in monocultural environments during pest management.