Tulsyan, G.P., & Bose, K.C. 1970 Structural transformations in the testis of Laccifer lacca Kerr (Lacciferidae: Coccoidea).. Zoologischer Anzeiger 185: 99-106.
Notes: Structure and development of the male reproductive organs of Laccifer lacca have been studied in four generations each of the two local strains kusami and rangmee. Gross observations of the gonads and associated structures through the developmental stages revealed that the testes shrink in the (pre-imaginal pseudo-pupal) stage and ultimately degenerate being replaced by the vesicular seminales which store the sperm bundles in the adult insect and have been termed as pseudo-testes because of their location and apparent resemblance with the testes in other insects. Histological structure of the pseudo-testes exhibits a close resemblance with that of the nymphal vesicular seminales and a marked difference from that of the nymphal testes. Histological studies also suggest the presence of special nutritive cells in the vesicular seminales and a secretory role of the epithelial wall of the latter. The early senescence of the testes has been correlated with the short life span of the adult insect. Accordingly the germ cells undergo an early and rapid multiplication, growth and differentiation.