Thomson, C., Tomkins, A.R., & Wilson, D.J. 1996 Effect Of insecticides on immature and mature stages of Encarsia citrina an armoured scale parasitoid.. Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Conference 49th: 1-5.

Notes: [Conference held in Nelson on 13-15 Aug 96.] Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis, diazinon, diofenolan and lufenuron on pre-imaginal and/or adult stages of Encarsia citrina, a key parasitoid of the armoured scale insects infesting kiwifruit. Bioassays were conducted by dipping potatoes, which were infested with second instar greedy scale (Hemiberlesia rapax) parasitised by E. citrina, in insecticide solutions, or caging adult parasitoids in treated Petri dishes. Of the insecticides tested, diazinon had the highest level of toxicity to the adult parasitoids. The need to change to insecticides with low or nil toxicity to scale parasitoids for increased biological control in ‘Kiwigreen’ is discussed.