Tawfik, M.F.S., Awadallah, K.T., Swailem, S.M., & El Maghraby, M.M.A. 1976 The biology of Cardiastethus nazarenus Reuter (Hemiptera - Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt No. 60: 239-249.

Notes: Laboratory studies were carried out in Egypt on the biology of Cardiastethus nazarenus Reut., an important predator in citrus groves. The anthocorid was reared on the eggs of Icerya purchasi Mask. At 25 and 30 deg C, the egg stage lasted 7.4 and 4.4 days, respectively, the total nymphal stage (consisting of 5 instars) 26.5 and 16.0 days, the preoviposition period 11.0 and 7.9 days, the oviposition period 23.7 and 20.8 days, and the postoviposition period 3.7 and 2.7 days, and the total number of eggs laid per female was 44.9 and 35.3. At 25 deg C, the life-span of adult males and females was 20.3 and 38.9 days. The feeding capacity of the predator on eggs of I. purchasi and Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), eggs and crawlers of Lepidosaphes beckii (Newm.) and the mobile stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (telarius auct.) were determined. On citrus trees in the field, the anthocorid had population peaks in July and November 1972 and April 1973; the overall ratio of males to females was 1:1.9.