Stumpf, C.F. 2000 . A revision of the pit scale species in the subfamily Asterolecaniinae. University of Tennessee, Ph.D. thesis Knoxville, Tennessee 356 pp.

Notes: [Ph.D. thesis; Paris Lambdin, advisor.] The pit scales or Asterolecaniidae represent a diverse group found in all major biogeographical regions of the world on a variety of host plants. Specimens representing both known and unknown species were obtained from institutions in North and South America for study. Species were described and illustrated based on morphological characters of the adult females. Computer-generated illustrations for each species were developed and stored in electronic files. A key was developed to include the 64 species of pit scales found in North and South America representing 12 genera (Asterodiaspis, Asterolecanium, Bambusaspis, Grammococcus, Mycetococcus, Mycococcus, Neoasterodiaspis, Palmaspis, Planchonia, Pollinia, Russellaspis, and Sclerosococcus). The subfamily Asterolecaniinae contains 56 different species in eight genera (Asterodiaspis, Asterolecanium, Bambusaspis, Grammococcus, Neoasterodiaspis, Palmaspis, Planchonia, and Russellaspis). From these, 48 species in the genera Asterodiaspis, Asterolecanium, Bambusaspis, Neoasterodiaspis, Palmaspis, Planchonia, and Russellaspis were described and illustrated. From the 48 species included in this study, 11 new species (two species of Asterolecanium, five species of Bambusaspis, and four species of Palmaspis) were described and illustrated. Also, three species in the genus Bambusaspis were synonymized and the genus Grammococcus was included in the subfamily Asterolecaniinae. In the U.S., 17 species of the subfamily Asterolecaniinae occur in seven genera (three in Asterodiaspis, four in Asterolecanium, five in Bambusaspis, one in Neoasterodiaspis, one in Palmaspis, two in Planchonia, and one in Russellaspis). From these, 13 species in the genera Asterodiaspis, Bambusaspis, Neoasterodiaspis, Planchonia, and Russellaspis have been introduced in the U.S. Only Asterolecanium agavis, A. grandiculum, A. puteanum, and Palmaspis inlabefacta are considered native to the U.S. Computer-generated phylogenetic trees were developed and tested for robustness. The phylogenetic relationships of 38 species in the subfamily Asterolecaniinae were evaluated based on 43 morphological characters of the adult females. A complete consensus tree of the 40 most parsimonious trees was developed. This study suggests that most genera may be monophyletic, while the genera Asterolecanium and Palmaspis appear to be paraphyletic. Pit scale biodiversity has not been adequately investigated, and many additional discoveries of new species are expected from tropical regions.