Steven, D., & Retamales, J. 1999 Integrated and organic production of kiwifruit.. Acta Horticulturae (No. 498): 345-354.
Notes: The current situation and prospects for integrated pest management (IPM) and organic techniques for pest control on kiwifruit in New Zealand, China, Chile, Japan, USA and Europe is examined with regard to the pest spectra present. In particular, armoured scales [Diaspididae], including Hemiberlesia rapax, H. lataniae and Aspidiotus nerii, and leafrollers [Tortricidae] are reviewed. Constraints and opportunities for both approaches are discussed. For both systems in New Zealand there is a critical need for a wider range of acceptable controls, in order to better assure consistent production that meets quarantine requirements, even in situations which favour pest outbreaks. Secondary pests also require better controls. Organic production in New Zealand is small but rapidly increasing. A healthy premium is currently being achieved, although some question the sustainability of this in the longer term. An IPM system called KiwiGreen has become the norm for production of kiwifruit in New Zealand. Planned and possible further developments are considered.