Spodek, M., Ben-Dov, Y., Mondaca, L., Protasov, A., Erel, E., & Mendel, Z. 2018 The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Israel: pest status, host plants and natural enemies. Phytoparasitica https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-018-0642-1
Notes: In Israel, the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, an invasive scale insect, was reported for the first time in the Jordan Valley in 2008 on basil (Ocimum basilicum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum). This mealybug is highly polyphagous with economic and environmental impacts. Since then, Ph. solenopsis has spread to almost every region of Israel and developed high populations on several ornamental plants. Fourteen species of insect natural enemies have been found in association with Ph. solenopsis in Israel. To date, the population density of Ph. solenopsis is steeply decreasing in most regions of Israel due to the activity of A. arizonensis. An identification key to distinguish between adult females of the eight species belonging to the genus Phenacoccus in Israel is also provided.