Schweppe, H. 1986 Identification of dyes in historic textile materials.. Advances in Chemistry Series No. 212: 153-174.

Notes: Some of the natural dyes that are suitable for dyeing textile materials can be identified very easily with chromatographic or spectroscopic methods even when the object to be investigated is very old. Such identification applies to the two natural vat dyes indigo and purple, and also to mordant dyes belonging to the class of the hydroxyanthrazuinones, for example, madder, cochineal, kermes, and lac dyes. Species mentioned include Dactylopius coccus, Kermes ilicis and K. vermilio.