Schneider, S.A., Okusu, A., & Normark, B.B. 2018 Molecular phylogenetics of Aspidiotini armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) reveals rampant paraphyly, curious species radiations, and multiple origins of association with Melissotarsus ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 129: 291-303
Notes: The armored scale insect tribe Aspidiotini comprises many pest species that are globally invasive and economically damaging. The taxonomy of scale insects is based almost solely upon morphological characters of adult females, and little prior work has been done to test the classification of aspidiotines against molecular evidence. To address these concerns, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny for aspidiotine armored scales that expands greatly upon taxonomic and character representations from previous studies.