Schmutterer, H. 1990a [Observations on pests of Azadirachta indica(neem tree) and of some Melia spp.]. Journal of Applied Entomology 109(4): 390-400.
Notes: The neem tree, Azadirachia indica, is attacked by a number of pest species, but most of them are only slightly harmful. Some scale insect species, such as Pinnaspis strachani and Aonidiella orientalis, may be very numerous but are usually kept in check by natural enemies. Leaf cutting ants (Acromyrmex sp.) damage young trees in Latin America. The tortricid moths Adoxophyes aurata and Loboschiza sp. attack neem leaves in southeast Asia and west Africa, respectively. The former may cuase considerable damage to leaves of chinaberry whereas Pseudalacaspis pentagona may kill twigs and branches of the same plant species during outbreaks in Tonga.