Engelstädter, J., Lin, Y.-P., Cook, L.G., & Sanaei, E. 2021 Wolbachia in scale insects: a distinct pattern of infection frequencies and potential transfer routes via ant associates. Environmental Microbiology doi:10.1111/1462-2920.15833
Notes: The estimated distribution parameters indicate a Wolbachia infection frequency of 43.6% (at a 10% prevalence threshold) in scale insects. We observed no significant associations between Wolbachia infection and scale insect traits. Finally, we screened for Wolbachia in scale insect’s ecological associates. We found a positive correlation between Wolbachia infection in scale insects and their ant associates, pointing to a possible route of horizontal transfer of Wolbachia.