Royer, M. 1975 Hermaphroditism in insects. Studies on Icerya purchasi.. Intersexuality in the Animal Kingdom. Springer-Verlag New York 449 pp.

Notes: Among insects only the Iceryidae, and the genus Icerya in particular seem to have a true functional hermaphroditism. Our studies on Icerya purchasi reveal that the hermaphroditic condition is established at the moment of fertilization. The usual polyspermy is followed by a transformation of the spermatozoa into pronuclei. One of these becomes involved in the amphimictic process and the ensuing development of the soma and the initial female germinal cells which are diploid. The other pronuclei represent the source for the ameiotic male germinal cells. From the moment of fertilization the male and female gemetogenic cells become definitely segregated and fixed with regard to their further morphogenesis. Such a strict determination of sex corresponds to what is known of the general gonochorism in insects.