Roque-Albelo, L., & Causton, C. 1999 El Nino and introduced insects in the Galapagos Islands: Different dispersal strategies, similar effects.. Noticias de Galapagos (60): 30-36.

Notes: By eliminating its food plant, Darwiniothamnus tenuifolius, the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi (Insecta, Homoptera, Margarodidae), may have extirpated three Lepidoptera species (i.e. Semiothisa cerussata, Platyptilia vilema and Tebenna galapagoensis) from the east slope of Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador.