Ponnamma, K.N. 1999 Coccoids associated with oil palm in India - a review.. Planter 75(882): 445-451.
Notes: Seventy-one species of insects are associated with oil palms in India, of which 20 species are coccoids. Scales and mealybugs are found as minor pests of oil palm, attacking spindle, leaves and fruit bunches. Mealybugs can be controlled by spraying with phosphamidon/dimethoate at 0.05% or methyl demeton [demeton-methyl] at 0.025%. Scale insects can be controlled by spraying with fenthion/malathion at 0.1%. Mealybugs are naturally controlled by many predators, of which coccinellid beetles are the most important. Species listed include Aonidiella orientalis, Aspidiotus sp., Ceroplastes ?actiniformis, C. ?rusci, Coccus accutissimus, C. hesperidum, Chrysomphalus aonidum, Dysmicoccus brevipes, Eucalymnatus tessellatus, Hemiberlesia lataniae, H. palmae, Icerya aegyptiaca, I. formicarum, I. menoni, I. seychellarum, Ischnaspis longirostris, Mycetaspis personata, Palmicultor sp., Pinnaspis aspidistrae and Pseudococcus citriculus.