Podsiadlo, E. 2006a Morphological adaptations for respiration in Cryptococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccinea) occurring in Poland.. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 75(2): 277-281.
Notes: The size and location of spiracles and size of clypeo-labral shield were analysed in Cryptococcus fagisuga and Pseudochermes fraxini. In these species, the access of air to spiracles is hindered due to their living in bark crevices of trees. Morphological adaptation to these unfavourable conditions is the location of spiracles in deep cavities of the sclerotized wall which, presumably, contain air reserves being the source of oxygen. In both species, the clypeo-labral shields are very large, which is an adaptation to feeding in woody parts of plants and to living in unfavourable oxygen conditions.