Persad, A., & Khan, A. 2002 Comparison of life table parameters for Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Anagyrus kamali, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Scymnus coccivora.. Biocontrol Dordecht 47(2): 137-149.

Notes: The pink mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) was recently introduced to Trinidad. M. hirsutus almost immediately attained pest status and despite the implementation of cultural and chemical control measures, the population increased above the economic injury level. Three natural enemies, Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Scymnus coccivora Ayyar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were introduced. Life fecundity tables were constructed for the pest-natural enemies complex in the hope of understanding the interaction of each natural enemy with its host, and, in so doing, form a comparative approach to assessing the effectiveness of each natural enemy. The studies were carried out in the laboratory at 27.0 +/- 3.0 degreesC and 58.0 +/- 3.0% RH, which is within the average field conditions in Trinidad. The net reproductive rates (R-o), the innate capacity for increase (r(m)) and the finite rate of increase (lambda) were found to be higher for the natural enemies compared to the pest. The doubling time for M. hirsutus was 8.83 days, while A. kamali, C. montrouzieri and S. coccivora populations doubled in 2.09, 5.13 and 4.45 days respectively. The significantly higher population parameters of the natural enemies, coupled with their shorter doubling times, mean that their populations can grow faster and thus exert a controlling effect on pest numbers.