Ouvrard, D., Kondo, T., & Gullan, P.J. 2013 Scale Insects: Major Pests and Management. Encyclopedia of Pest Management DOI: 10.1081/E-EPM-120046899

Notes: Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are sap-sucking plant parasites that cause enormous agricultural and horticultural damage. The biological and ecological traits of scale insects combined with growing international trade of plants and plant products explain outbreaks of these insects observed on crops worldwide. Many major scale insect pests are mealybugs (Pseudococcidae), armored scales (Diaspididae) and soft scales (Coccidae); but there are also notable pests in other smaller scale insect families. The management of pest scale insects requires a combination of tactics including insecticide releases and biological control. Successful examples of control often involve specific predators or parasitoids, but the fight against polyphagous invasive species may be impeded by a lack of knowledge about their systematics. Besides traditional integrated pest management programs, other innovative and promising approaches are under investigation.