Nur, U. 1990b 1.2.2 Parthenogenesis.. Armored Scale Insects, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control [Series title: World Crop Pests, Vol. 4A]. Boletin del Museo de Entomologia de la Universidad del Valle Elsevier Amsterdam, The Netherlands 384 pp.
Notes: Types, incidence and the advantage of parthenogenesis are discussed as well as the differences between morphologically similar uniparental and biparental forms and the fate of uniparental forms. Species discussed include Aspidiotus nerii, A. paranerii, Chionaspis pinifoliae, Howardia biclavis, Ischnaspis longirostris, Lepidosaphes ulmi and Nuculaspis californica.