Nechols, J.R., & Kikuchi, R.S. 1985 Host selection of the spherical mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) by Anagyrus indicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae): influence of host stage on parasitoid oviposition, development, sex ratio, and survival.. Environmental Entomology 14(1): 32-37.

Notes: The gregarious encyrtid parasite Anagyrus indicus oviposits in nymphs of all three instars and in adult females of Nipaecoccus vastator [N. viridis]. In no-choice tests, the frequency of hosts parasitized, and the number of eggs deposited per host were significantly greater in 3rd-instar nymphs and adult females of N. viridis than in either 1st- or 2nd-instar nymphs. In choice tests, significantly more adult females were parasitized than 3rd-instar nymphs, and the 1st and 2nd instars were not parasitized. A. indicus was able to complete its development and emerge following parasitism of each of the four host instars, but parasite development was the fastest, the number of parasites emerging was the greatest and the ratio of female to male parasites was the highest following oviposition in 3rd-instar nymphs and adult females. These findings have implications for mass-rearing and field colonization of A. indicus and provide support for recent predictive models of reproductive strategies in parasitic Hymenoptera.