Mo, J.H. 2003 Longtailed mealybug.. Monographic Series - NSW Agriculture No. 2 (January): 3 pp.

Notes: This paper describes the long-tailed mealybug [Pseudococcus longispinus], the pest attacking all citrus varieties, preferably navel oranges and grapefruits. There are 3 to 4 generations per year in New South Wales (Australia). The female produces around 200 live young (which she deposits under her body) over a 2-3 week period. During summer, the life cycle is completed in around 6 weeks (approx equal to 12 weeks in winter). The honeydew produced by mealybugs encourages the growth of sooty mould, which downgrades fruit quality, and in severe cases lowers general tree health. Mealybugs are often found in sheltered sites. Fortnightly monitoring is critically important in November-December. Their natural enemies include the wasps [Vespidae], lacewings [Chrysopidae] and ladybirds [Coccinellidae]. In navel oranges and grapefruits, action should be taken when 10% or more of the fruits are infested with mealybugs. Action level is 20% for all other varieties. In late November and early December, control is required if the action level is reached before calyx closure. Chemical control measures include petroleum spray oils and soap sprays.