Mendel, Z., Assael, F., & Dunkelblum, E. 2004 Kairomonal attraction of predatory bugs (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) and brown lacewings (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae) to sex pheromones of Matsucoccus species (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).. Biological Control 30(2): 134-140.

Notes: The kairomonal response of potential predators of pine bast scales Matsucoccus Cockerell was investigated using traps baited with female sex pheromones of M. josephi Bodenheimer and Harpaz, M. feytaudi Ducasse, and M. matsumurae Kuwana. In addition to the attraction of conspecific males and a weak cross attraction of congener ones, two guilds of predators were attracted: flower bugs of the genus Elatophilus Reuter and brown lacewings of the genera Hemerobius L. and Sympherobius Banks. E. hebraicus Pericart, E. nigricornis Zetterstedt, E. crassicornis Reuter, H. stigma Stephens, and S. fitscescens (Wallengern) were captured in the West Palearctic region, whereas E. inimica Drake & Harris, H. stigma, and H. stigmaterus Fitch were captured in the US. E. hebraicus alone was attracted to all three pheromones, while all other species responded to one or two of them. The Matsucoccus pheromones are ketones, sharing a common chiral ketodiene moiety. The capture pattern of both predator guilds points to a general mode of kairomonal response with some specificity due to differences in the second side chain of these pheromones. Our findings suggest that further application of Matsucoccus pheromone traps may reveal additional predators which could be used as biological control agents of the noxious pine bast scale species.