Mendel, Z. 1998 Biogeography of Matsucoccus josephi (Homoptera: Matsucoccidae) as related to host resistance in Pinus brutia and Pinus halepensis.. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28: 323-330.

Notes: The range of the scale Matsucoccus josephi was outlined as related to that of its hosts Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions. Population density of M. josephi and host susceptibility were investigated in 53 provenances of P. halepensis and 4 subspecies of P. brutia. The primary range of M. josephi is eastern Mediterranean and corresponds to that of P. brutia subsp. brutia, which is highly resistant to M. josephi. Provenances of P. halepensis from Greece and the Near East are quite resistant, as compared with those of the West Mediterranean. Pinus brutia subsp. pithyusa (P. pityusa), P. brutia subsp. stankewiczii (P. pityusa var. stankewiczii), and P. brutia subsp. eldarica (P. eldarica) are highly susceptible. Speciation of M. josephi could have occurred in the south of the areas between the Black and the Caspian Seas from a progenitor that came into contact with P. brutia subsp. brutia after speciation of P. brutia and P. halepensis and the formation and isolation of the four subspecies of the former. The resistance to M. josephi of pines of the subsection Halepenses, viz. P. brutia brutia, is believed to be the result of coevolution.