McClure, M.S. 1986 Role of predators in regulation of endemic populations of Matsucoccus matsumurae (Homoptera: Margarodidae) in Japan.. Environmental Entomology 15: 976-983.

Notes: Life table data for Matsucoccus matsumurae (Kuwana) were gathered from April through September 1984 from 30 ornamental and forest stands of two native hosts, Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. and P. thunbergiana Franco, and an exotic host, P. massoniana Lamb, located in central and southern Japan. The scale inhabited nearly every stand of the two Japanese pines, but its densities were always low and trees suffered no apparent injury. Trees were damaged, however, in forest stands of P. massoniana where densities were many times greater than on adjacent Japanese pines. Predators have an important role in regulation of endemic populations of M. matsumurae. Harmonia axyridis Pallas, which comprised 84% of the total number of predators captured killed 97% of the scales in one heavily infested forest stand of P. massoniana.