Matteo, G.D., & Voltas, J. 2016 Multienvironment Evaluation of Pinus pinaster Provenances: Evidence of Genetic Trade-Offs between Adaptation to Optimal Conditions and Resistance to the Maritime Pine Bast Scale (Matsucoccus feytaudi). Forest Science 62(5):553–563
Notes: Matsucoccus feytaudi Duc. feeds exclusively on Pinus pinaster. Aome provenances from the western Mediterranean are known to be resistant to M. feytaudi. The primary resistance mechanism is the existence of anatomical defenses (i.e., resin ducts), but the production of these defenses may come at the cost of resource allocation trade-offs with other functions, including growth. We analyzed a multienvironment trial in central Italy including eight representative provenances of P. pinaster. Provenances exhibiting specific adaptation to near-optimal conditions showed high susceptibility to the insect; conversely, those origins better adapted to poorer conditions were much less affected by the outbreak.