Matta, V.A. 1979 [Natural enemies of white diaspid scales from olive trees in the Azapa Valley, Arica, Chile.]. Idesia (5): 231-242.

Notes: A survey of the biological control of white diaspine scales attacking olive trees in the Azapa valley (Africa) is presented. The scales identified as Aspidiotus hederae (= perii), Hemiberlesia lataniae and H. rapax are actively controlled by Aphytis notialis, A. chilensis, A. melinus (introduced from California, USA), Signiphora aspidioti and Aspidiotiphagus citrinus, while Lindorus lophantae and Chrysopa carnea act as predators of different stages of the hosts. Descriptions of the species involved, keys to recognize them, distribution and a general discussion of the environment and local conditions are provided.