Masten Milek, T. 2007 . Fauna stitastih usi (Insecta: Coccoidea) u Republici Hrvatskoj. [Fauna of scale insects (Insecta: Coccoidea) in the Republic of Croatia.] Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University in Osijek. Osijek, Croatia 242 pp.
Notes: Summary by author: Scale insects represent one of the most important agricultural pests of perennial plants. They are characterized by their structure, great number of existing species in the world and sometimes minimal morphological differences between species. Their behaviour and life cycle greatly contribute to the problem of their control. They can cause direct and indirect damages. Direct damages arise by imbibing of plant saps from particular plant parts, which affects quantity and quality of yield. Indirect damages are transmission of viruses and excreting honeydew, a growth medium for sooty moulds. Following methods were used during the research: browsing of literature data of past faunistic research in Croatia and expurgation of synonyms, collecting samples of plant material, processing of samples under stereo microscope, storing of samples. preparation of slides, identification. marking the localities according to UTM system, creating a unified check list containing literature data of faunistic investigations and faunistic investigations conducted in Croatia in period 2005 - 2007. conducting experiments of biological and chemical control in a randomized complete block design with 4 replicates. calculating of efficacy according to Henderson Tilton. and statistical processing according to Duncan multiple range test with significance level P=0.05. Faunistic investigations were conducted on the territory of Republic of Croatia in 21 counties. on 256 different localities in period 2005 - 2007. By visual inspection 709 samples of plant material was collected. Of those samples 1804 permanent slides of scale insects were made. 72 different species of scale insects were identified on 212 different host plants from 80 plant families. During three years of faunistic investigations. 21 first records of scale insects for Croatia were established. They belong in 3 different families and 16 different genus. from family Coccidae 6 species were established: Ceroplastes japonicus (Green). Neopulvinaria innunerabilis (Rathvon), Parthenolecanium fletcheri (Cockerell), Parthenolecanium pomeranicum (Kawecki), Pulvinaria hvdrungeae Stcinweden and Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi (Vallot), from family Diaspididae 8 species: Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi. Diaspis boisduvalii Signoret. Kuwanaspis pseudoleucaspis (Kuwana), Lepidosaphes flava (Signoret), Lepidosaphes juniperi Lindinger. Lepidosaphes newsteadi (Sulc), Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret) and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley), and from family Pseudococcidae 7 species: Antonina crawi Cockerell. Chaetococcus phragmitis (Marchal), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell). Nipaecoccus delassusi (Balachowsky), Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret). Browsing of literature data of faunistic investigations of scale insects in Croatia involved a period from 1894. to 2000. Within this period 137 entries of different scale insects species were established and 53 synonyms arc expurgated. 246 host plants from 85 plant families were established. This data relates to 158 different localities in Croatia. Misidentifications were established in 4 entries. For 6 alleged scale species there was no data in newly written literature. Valid list of scale insects from literature data of faunistic investigations with expurgate synonyms include III species. Complete check list of scale insects of Croatia, composed of literature data of faunistic investigations and data from faunistic investigations conducted in period 2005 - 2007. contains 132 species. classified in 12 families and 71 genus. Within faunistic investigation, beside scale insects. 11 predator species from family Coccinellidae were established. In scale insects 18 different parasitic wasps from superfamily Chalcidoidea were found, which belong in families Aphelinidae. Encyrtidae and Pterornalidae. Beside scale insects 6 different mites from families Acaridae, Cheyletidae , Phytoseidae were found, and in association with scale insects 6 different ant species from family Formicidae were established. Biological control of Planococcus citri on pelargonium with Cryptobug didn't give satisfying results. Chemical control of P. citri on pelargonium with insecticides Savona, Bijelo ulje and Radotion showed satisfying efficacy. Insecticides Moris, Magnum 200 SL, Reldan 40 EC, Rotor 125 EC, Calypso SC 480, Fastac 10 SC, Bijelo ulje and Radotion showed good efficacy in control of Parthenolecanium corni (Boucl?) and Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius) on grapevine. For the first time in Croatia, a change in biology of P. corni, P. persicae was established, and it was determined that this 2 species can have 2 generations per year, contrary to all Croatian literature data which states that they have only I generation.