Mani, M. 1988a Bioecology and management of grapevine mealybug.. Technical Bulletin (Indian Institute of Horticultural Research) No. 5: 32.

Notes: Information is presented on the biology, natural enemies, food plants, injuriousness and control of Maconellicoccus hirsutus, the most commonly found pseudococcid pest of grapevine in India. The life cycle of the pest is usually completed in a month. A total of 28 plant species have been reported as alternative food plants of M. hirsutus in India. Among the indigenous natural enemies, the encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus dactylopii and the coccinellid Scymnus coccivora are of considerable importance. Debarking of infested vines, followed by pasting with insecticides, and spraying or dipping fruit bunches in 0.02% dichlorvos in combination with fish oil rosin soap at 25 g/litre, help to control the pest. Biological control with the exotic coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri has been very successful in suppressing populations of the pseudococcid. A single predator can consume 900-1500 eggs or 300 nymphs of the prey during its development. The coccinellid can be reared in large numbers on pumpkin fruits infested with the prey. Releases of 1000-1500 adult predators/acre gave effective control within two months. Use of C. montrouzieri can also be combined with application of 0.20% dichlorvos or 0.05% chlorpyrifos since they are not toxic to the predator. Future control strategies suggested include the introduction of the parasitoid A. kamali from Java.