Malumphy, C.P., Hamilton, M.A., Manco, B.N., Green, W.C., Sanchez, M.D., Corcoran, M., & Salamanca, E. 2012 Toumeyella parvicornis (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Causing Severe Declie of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis in the Turks and Caicos Islands.. Florida Entomologist 95(1):113-119

Notes: Since it was first formally recorded there in 2005, the Nearctic pine tortoise scale Toumeyella parvicornis (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Coccidae has caused severe decline of the Caribbean pine, Pinus caridaea var. bahamensis (Grisebach W.H. Barrett & Golfari, in the pine forests on the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). The scale infestations reduce host vigor, cause dieback and high levels of mortality. Honeydew excreted by the insects enables the growth of associated sooty molds to smother the under-story plants inhibiting their growth. Surveys carried out on the islans suggest that the entire Caribbean pine population in the TCI is under immediate threat from this invasive pest, with potentially devastating effects on the pineyard ecosystem. The biology, distribution, impact and economic importance of the pine tortoise scale are reviewed.