Malumphy, C.P., & Halstead, A.J. 2012 First Incursions in Europe of Four Australasian Species of Armoured Sale Insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 25:193-198

Notes: The first incursions in Britain (and Europe) of four species of Australasian armoured scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are reported. Chionaspis xanthorrhoeae Fuller was found breeding indoors on two 100+ year old Xanthorrhoea sp. plants at private premises in Biddenham, Bedfordshire, England, in 2009. The plants had been bought from a commercial plant nursery in Wales in 2003, and the scales had been breeding in Britain for at least six years. Fusilaspis phymatodidis (Maskell) was found causing chlorosis and brown necrotic spotting to the foliage of Dicksonia antarctica and Woodwardia radicans, and to a lesser degree Blechnum sp. and Dryopteris sp., grown in polytunnels at Rosemoor, the Royal Horticultural Society’s Garden near Great Torrington, North Devon, England, in 1994, and outdoors in 1995. Parlatoria pittospori Maskell was found causing chlorosis to the foliage of a mature Aloe glauca grown indoors at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey, England, in 1995. Pseudaulacaspis brimblecombei Williams was found breeding indoors on two Telopea ‘Golden Globe’ plants at a commercial premises in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England, in September 2012. The infested plants had been imported from Italy six months earlier, although P. brimblecombei is not known to occur in Italy. The biology, host plants and geographical range for each of these scale insects are reviewed and their potential economic and environmental impact in Britain discussed.